Umbilical Cord Blood Umbilical Cord Tissue

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Umbilical Cord Blood Umbilical Cord Tissue

Cord blood is the blood that remains in the umbilical cord and placenta after childbirth. Cord blood banking involves the collection of umbilical cord blood, which contains valuable stem cells, for potential future medical use. This process includes cryogenically freezing and storing the cord blood.


Cord blood is rich in stem cells and can assist in the treatment of over 80 diseases. The process of collecting and storing stem cells and immune system cells from cord blood for potential future medical use is known as cord blood banking. Stem cells in cord blood can transform into different types of blood cells that a patient’s body may need.


Scientifically, cord blood transplants have been shown to improve the condition of patients with serious illnesses such as malignancies, bone marrow failure, hemoglobinopathies, immune deficiencies, and metabolic disorders. The compatibility of the donated cord blood’s tissue type with that of the patient is crucial for a successful treatment.


It is essential to store as many cord blood donations as possible, and the process is safe for both the donor and the baby, without posing any risks. Cord blood banking is optional and can be done through public or private banks.


Cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that can treat over 80 diseases, including early-stage leukemia. On the other hand, cord tissue includes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), widely researched in regenerative medicine and used in stem cell-based therapies. Additionally, microRNAs in cord blood exosomes play a significant role in cellular communication and can contribute to genetic regulation.


Due to these reasons, selecting a nationally and internationally accredited cord blood bank is crucial according to legal standards set by health authorities.


Cord blood donation and storage are optional, and our healthcare professionals can provide you with more information during your pregnancy.


Storing a baby’s cord blood can offer numerous benefits:


  1. Treatment of Diseases: Cord blood, with its stem cells, can be used in the treatment of various malignancies, particularly hematologic (blood) disorders, immune system diseases, and genetic conditions. Stem cell transplantation from cord blood can be an option for treating these ailments.

  • Reduced Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD): 


Cord blood transplants may decrease the risk of graft-versus-host disease, as the cells in cord blood are not fully mature.


  1. Genetic Compatibility: Cord blood, containing stem cells obtained from the baby’s own body, eliminates the issue of genetic compatibility. This provides a significant advantage for using stem cells in a family member who may require a stem cell transplant.


  1. Faster and Easier Adaptation: The youthfulness and greater activity of cord blood stem cells facilitate quicker and easier adaptation to the recipient’s body after transplantation. This can improve the treatment process and reduce the risk of complications.


  1. Readily Available: Cord blood can be collected immediately after birth and prepared for freezing or storage, providing a crucial advantage in swiftly accessing stem cells in emergency situations.


  1. Source Diversity: Cord blood offers an alternative option to other stem cell sources, such as bone marrow. Cord blood stem cells contribute to creating potential perfectly matched donors for a larger number of people.


Cord Blood Biology: More Detail and Scientific Data


  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs):


  • HSCs in cord blood have high proliferation and differentiation capabilities, able to generate various types of blood cells.
  • Studies have shown that cord blood HSCs share similar characteristics with bone marrow stem cells and can be used for therapeutic purposes.


  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs):


  • MSCs in cord blood are notable for their high proliferation, immunomodulation, and regenerative potential.
  • Experimental studies have demonstrated the differentiation abilities of cord blood MSCs into different tissues such as bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue.


  1. Embryonic-Like Induced (Artificial) Stem Cells:


  • Stem cells in cord blood may exhibit a gene expression profile similar to embryonic-like stem cells.
  • Genetic analyses provide valuable data for evaluating the differentiation potential of these cells in cord blood.


  1. Factors Necessary for Hematopoiesis:


  • Cord blood contains cytokines, growth factors, and chemical signals essential for the hematopoiesis process.
  • Studies have been conducted on the effects of cord blood-derived factors added to human stem cell culture environments on cell proliferation and differentiation.


  1. Immunological Factors:


  • Stem cells in cord blood are known to have modulatory effects on the immune system.
  • Research has particularly focused on factors regulating immune responses and their potential in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.


  1. Genetic Material and Epigenetic Features:
  • The genetic material of cells in cord blood is crucial for investigating and treating genetic diseases.
  • Epigenetic modifications may impact the differentiation potential of cord blood stem cells, and ongoing studies are exploring this area.
  1. Clinical Importance of Cord Blood:
  • Cord blood transplants are used as an alternative to bone marrow transplants in the treatment of hematologic diseases.
  • Due to its immunological properties, cord blood holds high potential in the treatment of autoimmune and degenerative diseases.


  1. Cryopreservation and Storage:


  • Cryopreservation of cord blood is an effective method for the long-term storage of stem cells, allowing them to be utilized when needed.
  • Frozen cord blood samples can maintain their biological activities even after years, expanding future treatment options.


How is the Umbilical Cord Tissue Obtained?


  1. Umbilical Cord Cutting: Immediately after the baby’s birth, the umbilical cord is cut in a sterile manner. This process does not cause any discomfort to the baby or the mother.


  1. Collection of Cord Blood: A specialized cord blood collection kit is used to collect cord blood. These kits contain a bag processed with anticoagulants and a needle. The bag is attached to the end of the cord to collect blood, and the needle is inserted into the cord vein. Anticoagulants are used to prevent blood clotting during the transfer of blood to the bag.


  1. Processing of Cord Blood: Cord blood is processed in a laboratory setting to separate and isolate hematopoietic stem cells. This is typically achieved through methods such as density-based separation, centrifugation, or immunoselection.


  1. Processing of Cord Tissue: Pieces of cord tissue are usually separated in a laboratory setting. The isolation of these cells is carried out through methods like grinding the cord tissue, enzymatic digestion, or mechanical separation. This process ensures the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells.


  1. Cell Cultures and Storage: The obtained stem cells can be used to create cell cultures in a laboratory setting. This allows the cells to proliferate and be stored for further use. Long-term storage is often achieved by freezing the cells at -196°C in liquid nitrogen.